WLH Publications & Reports

Journal Articles

Original Research 

(2024) Design and implementation of the Our Health Counts (OHC) methodology for First Nations, Inuit, and Metis (FNIM) health assessment and response in urban and related homelands, Smylie, J., Bourgeois, C., Snyder, M. et al. Can J Public Health

(2024) Smylie, J., Rotondi, M.A., Filipenko, S. et al. Randomized controlled trial demonstrates novel tools to assess patient outcomes of Indigenous cultural safety training. BMC Med 22, 3 

(2023) Muir, N.M., Rotondi, M., Brar, R. et al. Our Health Counts: Examining associations between colonialism and ever being incarcerated among First Nations, Inuit, and Métis people in London, Thunder Bay, and Toronto, Canada. Can J Public Health.

(2023) Tackling Racism in Maternal Health. Catalao, R., Zephyrin, L., Richardson, L., Coghill, Y., Smylie, J., Stphanie, L. BMJ, Volume 383

(2023) Differential Patterns by Area-Level Social Determinants of Health in Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19)-Related Mortality and Non-COVID-19 Mortality: A Population-Based Study of 11.8 Million People in Ontario, Canada. Wang, L., Wang, L., Calzavara, A., Baral, S., Smylie, J., Chan, A., Sander, B., Austin, P., Kwong, J., Mishra, S. Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America76(6). 

(2022) Relationships to land as a determinant of wellness for Indigenous women, two-spirit, trans, and gender diverse people of reproductive age in Toronto, Canada. Jubinville, D., Smylie, J., Wolfe, S., et al.  al. CJPH

(2021) Long-distance travel for birthing among Indigenous and non-Indigenous pregnant people in Canada. Janet SmylieKristen O’BrienEmily Beaudoin et al. CMAJ.

(2020) “I Guess I Shouldn’t Come Back Here”: Racism and Discrimination as a Barrier to Accessing Health and Social Services for Urban Metis Women in Toronto, Canada. Renée Monchalin, Janet Smylie & Earl Nowgesic. J. Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities.

(2020) Kokums to the Iskwêsisisak. COVID-19 and Urban Métis Girls and Young Women, Carly Jones, Renée Monchalin, Cheryllee Bourgeois & Janet Smylie. Berghahn Journals.

(2020) Meeting Indigenous youth where they are at: knowing and doing with 2SLGBTTQQIA and gender non-conforming Indigenous youth: a qualitative case study. Hardy, BJ., Lesperance, A., Foote, I. et al. BMC Public Health.http://dx.doi.org/https://doi.org/10.3167/ghs.2020.130309

(2020) Conceptualising cultural safety at an Indigenous-focused midwifery practice in Toronto, Canada: Qualitative interviews with Indigenous and non-Indigenous clients. Churchill MESmylie JKWolfe SH, et al.BMJ Open.

(2020) Indigenous Health Service: Principles and Guidelines from a Provincial “Three Ribbon” Expert Panel. Michelle Firestone, Raglan Maddox, Patricia O’Campo et al. Canadian Journal of Program Evaluation.

(2020) It’s not like I’m more Indigenous there and I’m less Indigenous here.”: Urban Métis women’s identity and access to health and social services in Toronto, Canada. Renée Monchalin, Janet Smylie & Cheryllee Bourgeois. AlterNative.

(2020) Pekiwewin (coming home): advancing good relations with Indigenous people experiencing homelessness. Jesse Thistle & Janet Smylie. CMAJ.

Executive Summary: (2020) Pekiwewin (Coming Home): Clinical Guidelines for Health and Social Service Providers Working with Indigenous People Experiencing Homelessness Executive Summary. Thistle J, Laliberte N, Weissman E, Bloch G. et al

(2019) Unmet health needs and discrimination by healthcare providers among an Indigenous population in Toronto, Canada. Kitching, G.T., Firestone, M., Schei, B. et al. CJPH.

(2019) ““I would prefer to have my health care provided over a cup of tea any day”: recommendations by urban Métis women to improve access to health and social services in Toronto for the Métis community”. Monchalin, R., Smylie, J., Bourgeois, C., & Firestone, M. AlterNative.

(2019) “I feel safe just coming here because there are other Native brothers and sisters”: Findings from a community-based evaluation of the Niwin Wendaanimak Four Winds Wellness Program”. Firestone, M., Syrette, J., Jourdain, T. et al. CJPH.

(2019) Postpartum depression prevalence and risk factors among Indigenous, non-Indigenous and immigrant women in Canada. Daoud, N., O’Brien, K., O’Campo, P. et al. CJPH.

(2018) Our Health Counts: Population-Based Measures of Urban Inuit Health Determinants, Health Status, and Health Care Access. Janet Smylie, Michelle Firestone & Michael W. Spiller. CJPH.

(2018) A Cross-Sectional Analysis of the Relationship Between Diabetes and Health Access Barriers in an Urban First Nations Population in Canada. Michael Beckett, Michelle A Firestone, Constance D McKnight et al. BMJ Open.

(2018) Primary Care Intervention To Address Cardiovascular Disease Medication Health Literacy among Indigenous Peoples: Canadian Results of a Pre-Post Design Study. Janet Smylie, Kristen O’Brien, Chloé G. Xavier. CJPH.

(2018) Effect of a Health Literacy Intervention Trial On Knowledge About Cardiovascular Disease Medications Among Indigenous Peoples in Australia, Canada, and New Zealand. Crengle SLuke JNLambert M, et al. BMJ Open.

(2015) Concept Mapping: Application of a Community-Based Methodology in three Urban Aboriginal Populations. Michelle Firestone, Janet Smylie, Sylvia Maracle et al. De dwa da dehs nye>s Aboriginal Health Access Centre.

(2015) Patterns of Social Inequalities Across Pregnancy and Birth Outcomes: A Comparison of Individual and Neighborhood Socioeconomic Measures. Daoud, N., O’Campo, P., Minh, A. et al. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth.

(2015) South Asian Immigrant Men and Women and Conceptions of Partner Violence. F. Ahmad, J. Smylie,M. Omand, et al. J Immigr Minor Health.

(2011) Influencing Physical Activity and Nutrition Knowledge, Attitudes, Beliefs and Behaviours of Metis Child Through a Health Promoting School Intervention. S.N. Oosman, K.E. Chad & J. Smylie. CJD.

(2015) Correlates of Abuse Around the Time of Pregnancy: Results from a National Survey of Canadian Women. Kingston, D., Heaman, M., Urquia, M. et al. Matern Child Health J.

(2015) Mental Health and Substance Use Among an Urban First nations Population in Hamilton, Ontario. : Michelle Firestone, Janet Smylie, Sylvia Maracle et al. CJPH.

(2014) Health Literacy: Health Professionals’ Understandings and Their Perceptions of Barriers that Indigenous Patients Encounter. Lambert, M., Luke, J., Downey, B. et al. BMC Health Serv Res.

(2014) Conceptualizing Acts and Behaviours that Comprise Intimate Partner Violence: A Concept Map. Patricia O’Campo, Janet Smylie, Anita Minh et al. Health Expect.

(2014) Socioeconomic Position and Factors Associated with Use of a Non-Supine Infant Sleep Position: Findings from the Canadian Maternity Experiences Survey. Janet Smylie, Deshayne B. Fell, Beverley Chalmers et al. AJPH.

(2013) Evaluation of the Acceptability of a CD-ROM as a Health Promotion Tool for Inuit in Ottawa. Kelly E. McShane, Janet K. Smylie, Paul D. Hastings et al. IJCH.

(2013) The Contribution of Socio-Economic Position to the Excesses of Violence and Intimate Partner Violence Among Aboriginal Versus Non-Aboriginal Women in Canada. Nihaya Daoud, Janet Smylie, Marcelo Urquia, et al. CJPH.

(2012) Prevalence of Abuse And Violence Before, During, and After Pregnancy in a National Sample of Canadian Women. Nihaya Daoud, Marcelo L.Urquia, Patricia O’Campo et al. AJPH.

(2012) Birth Outcomes and Infant Mortality Among First Nations Inuit, and non-Indigenous Women by Northern versus Southern Residence. Luo ZWilkins RHeaman M, et al. BMJ.

Literature Reviews

(2023) Systematic review of Indigenous cultural safety training interventions for healthcare professionals in Australia, Canada, New Zealand and the United States. Hardy, B., Filipenko, S., Smylie, D., Ziegler, C., Smylie, J. BMJ, Volume 13. 

(2023) First Nations, Inuit and Métis Peoples Living in Urban Areas of Canada and Their Access to Healthcare: A Systematic Review. Simon Graham, Nicole Muir, Jocelyn Formsma, Janet Smylie.Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health, Volume 20(11).

(2022) Knowledge translation approaches and practices in Indigenous health research: A systematic review. Morton Ninomiya, M., Maddox, R., Brascoupe, S., Atkinson, D., Firestone, M., Ziegler, C., Smylie, J. 

(2021) Reviewing health service and program evaluation in Indigenous contexts: A systematic review. Maddox, R., Blais, G., Mashford-Pringle, A. et alAJE.

(2019) Principles, Approaches, and Methods for Evaluation in Indigenous Contexts: A Grey Literature Scoping Review. Kriti Chandna, Michelle M . Vine , Susan J . Snelling et al. CJPE.

(2017) Effective knowledge translation approaches and practices in Indigenous health research: a systematic review protocol. Morton Ninomiya, M.E., Atkinson, D., Brascoupé, S. et al. Syst Rev. 

(2016) Understanding the Role of Indigenous Community Participation in Indigenous Prenatal and Infant-Toddler Health Promotion Programs in Canada: A Realist Review. Janet Smylie, Maritt Kirst, Kelly McShane et al. Social Science & Medicine, Volume 150.

(2016) Effective Strategies to Reduce Commercial Tobacco Use in Indigenous Communities Globally: A Systematic Review. Minichiello, A., Lefkowitz, A.R.F., Firestone, M. et al. BMC.

(2015) Inequity to the Utilization of Bariatric Surgery: A Systematic Review. Bhogal, S.K., Reddigan, J.I., Rotstein, O.D. et al. OBES SURG 25.

(2014) Sharing What we Know About A Good Life: Indigenous Approaches to Knowledge Translation. Smylie, J., Olding, M., & Ziegler, C. Journal of the Canadian Health Libraries Association.

Methodologies or Methods

(2022) Developing Data Governance Agreements with Indigenous Communities in Canada. Love RP, Hardy BJ, Heffernan C et al. PMC.

(2017) Our Health Counts Toronto – Using Respondent-Driven Sampling To Unmask Census Undercounts Of An Urban Indigenous Population in Toronto, Canada. Michael A Rotondi, Patricia O’Campo, Kristen O’Brien et al. BMJ Open.

(2015) Concept Mapping: Application of a Community-Based Methodology in Three Urban Aboriginal Populations. Michelle Firestone, Janet Smylie, Sylvia Maracle et al. AICRJ.

(2015) Métis Community Perspectives Inform a School-Based Health Intervention Using Participatory Action Research. Sarah Oosman, Janet Smylie, Louise Humbert et al. Engaged Scholar Journal.

(2015) A Community-Based Participatory Research Methodology to Address Redress and Reassess Disparities In Respiratory Health among First Nations. Pahwa, P., Abonyi, S., Karunanayake, C. et al. BMC.

(2014) Unmasking Health Determinants and Health Outcomes for Urban First Nations Using Respondent Driven Sampling. M Firestone,J Smylie, S Maracle et al. BMJ Open.

(2012) Does Consideration and Assessment Of Effects on Health Equity Affect the Conclusions of Systematic Reviews? A Methodology Study. Welch V, Petticrew M, Ueffing E et al. PLoS ONE.

(2012) Systematic Reviews Need to Consider Applicability to Disadvantaged Populations: Interview-Rater Agreement for a Health Equity Plausibility Algorithm. Welch, V., Brand, K., Kristjansson, E. et al. BMC Med Res Methodol 12


(2022) Beyond shame, sorrow, and apologies – action to address Indigenous health inequities. Smylie JHarris RPaine S et al. BMJ.

(2021) A call for action that cannot go to voicemail: Research activism to urgently improve Indigenous perinatal health and wellbeing. Hickey S, Roe Y, Ireland S et al. PMID. 

(2020) Requirement for Meaningful Engagement of First Nations, Inuit, Métis, and Indigenous Peoples in Publications About Them. Smylie, J., Marsden, N., Star, L. et al. CJPH.

(2020) Unpacking vulnerability: towards language that advances understanding and resolution of social inequities in public health. McLaren, L., Masuda, J., Smylie, J. et al. CJPH.

(2020) Pekiwewin (coming home): advancing good relations with Indigenous people experiencing homelessness. Jesse Thistle, Janet Smylie. CMAJ.

(2019) The Foundation For A Smoke-Free World and healthy Indigenous Future: An Oxymoron? Waa ARobson BGifford H Hāpai Te Hauora Māori Public Health, et al. BMJ.

(2019) Truth, respect and recognition: addressing barriers to Indigenous maternity care. Janet Smylie, Wanda Phillips-Beck. CMAJ.

(2019) Why Public Health Matters Today and Tomorrow: The Role of Applied Public Health Research. McLaren, L., Braitstein, P., Buckeridge, D. et al. CJPH.

(2016) Missing and Murdered Indigenous women: Working With Families to Prepare for the National Inquiry. Smylie, J., Cywink, M. CJPH.

(2015) Cultural Safety and Providing Care to Aboriginal Patients in the Emergency Department. Evelyn M. Dell, Michelle Firestone, Janet Smylie et al. CJEM.

(2015) Approaching Reconciliation: Tips from the field. Janet Smylie. CJPH.

(2015) Back to Basics: Identifying and Addressing Underlying Challenges in Achieving High Quality Relevant Health Statistics for Indigenous Populations in Canada. Janet Smylie, Michelle Firestone. Statistical Journal of the IAOS.

(2014) Indigenous Mortality (Revealed): The Invisible Illuminated. Jane Freemantle, Ian Ring, Teshia G. Arambula Solomon, et al. AJPH.

(2012) Aboriginal Infant Mortality Rate in Canada. Janet Smylie. Lancet Journal.

Study Protocols

(2018) Study Protocol: Our Cultures Count – The Mayi Kuwayu Study, A National Study of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Wellbeing. Jones RThurber KAChapman J on behalf of the Mayi Kuwayu Study Team, et al. BMJ Open.

(2017) Effective Knowledge Translation Approaches and Practices in Indigenous Health Research: A Systematic Review. Melody E. Morton Ninomiya, Donna Atkinson , Simon Brascoupé, et al. Syst Rev.

(2014) Health Inequity to Bariatric Surgery: A Protocol for a Systematic Review. Jackson, T.D., Zhang, R., Glockler, D. et al. Syst Rev.

(2014) Cardiovascular Disease Medication Health Literacy Among Indigenous Peoples: Design and Protocol of an Intervention Trial in Indigenous Primary Care Services. Crengle, S., Smylie, J., Kelaher, M. et al. BMC.


(2023) Auduzhe Mino Nesewinong and We Count COVID-19 Year One Evaluation Report

(2022) Summary Report of the Our Health Counts Applied Indigenous Epidemiology, Health Information, and Health Services and Program Evaluation Training and Mentorship (OHC-NET) Program OHC-NET 2nd Annual Gathering

(2022) Summary Report of a National Network Environments for Indigenous Health Research (NEIHR) Our Health Counts Applied Indigenous Epidemiology, Health Information, and Health Services and Program Evaluation Training and Mentorship (OHC-NET) Vision Gathering

(2021) We Count COVID19 Auduzhe Clinic Evaluation Summary June 19 

(2021) We Count COVID19 Auduzhe Clinic Evaluation Summary May4-May11

(2021) We Count COVID19 Auduzhe Clinic Evaluation Summary May1

(2021) Toronto COVID19 Action Initiative Community Report

(2021) Toronto COVID-19 Action Initiative Milestones and Future Directions – Final Report Summer 2021

(2020) Pekiwewin (Coming Home): Clinical Guidelines for Health and Social Service Providers Working with Indigenous People Experiencing Homelessness Executive Summary

(2019) Honouring Lives Final Report

(2018) Indigenous Knowledge Network (IKN) for Infant Child and Family Health – Final Community Report

(2019) All Our Voices Final Report (TASSC)

(2017) Niiwin Wendaanimak Four Winds Wellness Program Evaluation Report

(2017) Summary Report of a Provincial “Three Ribbon” Expert Consensus Panel

(2017) Evidence Brief: Wise Practices for Indigenous-Specific Cultural Safety Training

(2016) Emergent Principles and Protocols for Indigenous Health Service Evaluation: Summary Report of a Provincial “Three Ribbons” Expert Consensus Panel

(2016) Visioning For a Toronto Aboriginal Birth Centre Report

(2015) First Peoples, Second Class Treatment: The role of racism in the health and well-being of Indigenous peoples in Canada – Full Report

(2015) First Peoples, Second Class Treatment: The role of racism in the health and well-being of Indigenous peoples in Canada – Executive Summary

(2014) Strong Women, Strong Nations: Aboriginal Maternal Health in British Columbia

(2013) Strengthening Health Literacy Among Indigenous People Living With Cardiovascular Disease, Their Families, and Health Care Providers: Phase 1 Report

(2013) Addressing the Social Determinants of Health of Aboriginal Infants, Children and Families in British Columbia

(2012) Our Babies, Our Future: Aboriginal Birth Outcomes in British Columbia

(2012) Honouring Our Children: Aboriginal Child Health in British Columbia

Action Reports

Well Living House Measures & Milestones 2012-2022

Well Living House Action Report 2012-2019: Milestones & Future Directions

Well Living House Action Report 2012-2015: Milestones & Future Directions

Our Health Counts Reports

Click here for OHC Reports by Community

Our Health Counts Publications

Click here for OHC Publications

Book Chapters

(2016) All My Relations – Indigenous Women’s Health in Canada in Women’s Health in Canada: Critical Perspectives on Theory and Policy

(2016) The Health of Indigenous Peoples in Social Determinants of Health: Canadian Perspectives

(2014) Indigenous Child Wellbeing in Canada in Encyclopedia of Quality Life Research

(2014) Indigenous Midwifery as an Expression of Sovereignty in Indigenous Mothering, Family and Community: International Perspectives

(2013) Indigenous Health and Ethics: Lessons from Global Health in An Introduction to Global Ethics

(2012) Population-Based Data and Community Empowerment in Rethinking Social Epidemiology: Towards a Science of Change

(2012) Well Babies, Well Nations: Understanding Birth Weight, Prenatal Smoke Exposure, Breastfeeding and Infant/Child Health in First Nations Regional Longitudinal Health Survey 2008/2009 National Report

(2011) Knowledge Translation and Indigenous Knowledge – A Decolonizing Perspective in Knowledge Translation in Community-Based Research and Social Policy Contexts

Oral History

Oral History: Indigenous Birth Knowledge and Stories for My Baby

Justice for Joyce

Report of the Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples

Highlights from the Report of the Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples

Truth and Reconciliation Commission reports

Executive Summary: National Inquiry into Missing and Murdered Indigenous Women and Girls

Viens Report

Out of Sight: a summary of the events leading up to the death of Brian Sinclair

Bringing Reconciliation to Healthcare in Canada

Health and Health Care Implications of Systemic Racism on Indigenous Peoples in Canada

Wise Practices for Indigenous-specific Cultural Safety Training Programs

First Peoples, Second Class Treatment

Indigenous Cultural Safety Collaborative Learning Series

Ignored to Death: Systemic Racism in the Canadian Healthcare System

Unmet health needs and discrimination by healthcare providers among an Indigenous population in Toronto, Canada

Justice for Joyce Globe and Mail Media Reports